8 Parts of Speech Definitions and Examples | Basic English Grammar

Parts of Speech is one of the most important portion of English grammar and if you are learning English Grammar for English Speaking and Writing, then it is very important for you to know What is Parts of Speech? and What are the 8 parts of speech in English?. After learning them, you will able to use them properly for Spoken English and English writing and you will not have any difficulty while using them in any sentences. Many students face difficulties while learning Parts of Speech because they can't understand it properly. So, today we'll discuss all 8 Parts of Speech definition and examples in a very easy and simple way.  

8 Parts of Speech Definitions and Examples

{tocify} $title={Table of Contents}

What is Parts of Speech?

Definition of Parts of Speech : The different kind of words used in English speaking or speech are called parts of speech and it is used to make a sentence. For an example, Boys are playing in the park. There are total 6 words; "Boys", "Are" "playing", "In", "The", "Park". And these 6 words makes a sentence or speech that is "Boys are playing in the park". And out of these 6 words, 5 words represents different types of parts of speech such as here "Boys" is a "Noun", "Are" is a "Helping Verb", "Playing" is a "Main Verb", "In" is a "Preposition", "The Park or Park" is a "Noun". The Parts of Speech are eight in number : Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection. But in some books there are 9 types of parts of speech including Article (The, a/an, etc). 

Noun Definition and Examples and Types 

Noun Definition :

A noun is a word used as the name. For an example, "The cow gives us milk". There are two nouns in this sentence or speech, "The Cow" and "Milk"

Examples of Noun :

  • Ram is going to school 
  • Gold is a valuable metal 
  • Riyanka is a beautiful girl

Important links regrading English grammar

Types of Nouns 

The nouns are of several different kinds. Anyway, here we'll talk about five main types of noun such as (i) Proper noun, (ii) Common noun or Concrete noun, (iii) Collective noun or Group noun, (iv) Material noun and (v) Abstract noun. 

(i) Proper noun : 

So what is proper noun?. A proper noun is a name of some particular place, person or thing. For an example, India is a powerful country. Here "India" is the name of a special or "particular country" but the word, "country" can be used for any country of the world. So, when a word refers to the name of a particular person or place or thing, then it is called Proper Noun. 

Proper Noun Examples:

  • New York  is a big city 
  • Rita is a good girl
  • John is a smart boy

(ii) Common noun or Concrete noun : 

So what is Common noun or Concrete noun?. When a noun is used to describe every person or thing of the same class or kind, or to describe the name of any object which we can count, then it is called Common Noun or Concrete noun. For an example, India is a powerful country. So, here "India" is a Proper Noun while "Country" is a Common Noun because the word can be used for any country. 

Examples of Common Noun :

  • New York is a big city 
  • Rita is a good girl
  • John is a smart boy

(iii) Collective noun or Group noun : 

A group noun or a collective noun is a the name of a group of similar individuals which is considered as one. For example, The army is very discipline. Here "Army" is a group of people or a collection of soldiers. 

Collective Noun Examples :

  • The crowd has no discipline (group of people)
  • Rony is the last boy in the class (group of students)
  • You must watch the fleet  (group of ships)

(iv) Material noun : 

A material noun denotes the name of mass or matter or substance. That is, which can't be counted but can be weighed. For an example, "Water", "Iron", "Sand", "Soil", etc. 

Examples of Material Noun :

  • The chair is made of steel 
  • Please give me a glass of water
  • The wristwatch is made of gold

(v) Abstract noun : 

An abstract noun is usually the name of feeling or quality, action or events, circumstance, etc. Quality such as "Honesty, Kindness, Beauty, etc". Circumstance such as "Childhood, Slavery, Death, etc". And action such as "Talk, Laughter, Advice, Judgement, etc"

Abstract Noun Examples : 

  • Character is the highest virtue
  • She is brave since her childhood 
  • He burst into laughter

Pronoun Definition and Examples and Types 

Pronoun Definition : 

A word used instead of a Noun is called a Pronoun Or it is used in place of a Noun. For an example in Noun, "Roma is an intelligent girl". here "Roma" is a "Noun" and in Pronoun, "She is an intelligent girl". So, here in "Pronoun" we have used "She" instead of "Roma". Although here "Girl" is also a Noun but in Pronoun, most of the time we use Pronoun in the place of Proper Noun. 

Examples of Noun :

  • Pritam is going to school (Pritam is Noun)
  • Mohit & Raj are playing football (Mohit & Raj are Noun)

Examples of Pronoun :

  • He is going to school (We've used He instead of Pritam)
  • They are playing football (We've used They instead of Mohit & Raj)

All Types of Pronouns 

There are several types of Pronouns but we'll only talk about main 10 types of Pronouns such as (i) Personal Pronoun,  (ii) Impersonal Pronoun, (iii) Possessive Pronoun, (iv) Reflexive & Emphatic Pronoun, (v) Demonstrative Pronoun, (vi) Indefinite Pronoun, (vii) Distributive Pronoun, (viii) Reciprocal Pronoun, (ix) Interrogative Pronoun, (x) Relative Pronoun.

(i) Personal Pronoun : 

Personal Pronoun is used instead of a person. For example, I, We, You, He, She, They, etc. 

(ii) Impersonal Pronoun : 

Impersonal Pronoun is used instead of inanimate objects or lower creatures. For an example, It. 

Impersonal Pronoun Examples :

  • It is a bird
  • It is a fish 

(iii) Possessive Pronoun : 

This Pronoun is used to describe ownership or possession. Example, Mine, Ours, Yours, His, Theirs, Hers, etc. 

(iv) Reflexive & Emphatic Pronoun : 

This pronoun is formed with the word of "Self" or "Selves" such as Myself, Yourself, Themselves, Yourselves, etc

(v) Demonstrative Pronoun : 

This Pronoun points out particular things or person or it indicates the Noun in a special way such as This, That, Those, it, these, etc.

Demonstrative Pronoun Examples :

  • It is a tree
  • This is her house

(vi) Indefinite Pronoun : 

This pronoun points out to an indefinite person or object. For example, Any, Anyone, No one, Somebody, Many, Everyone, etc. 

(vii) Distributive Pronoun : 

This pronoun refers to persons or things one at a time. For example, Each, Either, Every, Neither, etc. 

(viii) Reciprocal Pronoun : 

This pronoun refers to the interrelationship between an object or a person such as Each other, One another, etc

(ix) Interrogative Pronoun : 

Interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions and it is used at the beginning of the sentence . For example, Who, Whose, Whom, Which, etc. 

(x) Relative Pronoun : 

This pronoun refers to the relationship between two sentences and it is used in  between two sentences. For example, Who, Whose, Which, That, etc.

Relative Pronoun Examples :

  • This is a girl who stood first
  • This is the book which is best for UPSC exam 

Adjective Definition and Examples and Types

Adjective Definition : 

An Adjective is a word used to describe a noun. For an example, "Roma is an intelligent girl". Here "Roma" is a girl as well as a noun but we have used "Intelligent" before the word, girl to describe her or to describe noun. 

Adjective Examples : 

  • The mouse is a little animal 
  • We are Indian
  • She is a beautiful girl 

All Types of Adjectives 

Adjectives are mainly of two types, (a) Attributive Adjective and (b) Predicative Adjective. But there are also several kinds of Adjectives in terms of nature but we'll only discuss about 8 important types of adjectives such as (i) Proper Adjective, (ii) Adjective of Quality, (iii) Adjective of Quantity, (iv) Numeral Adjective, (v) Demonstrative adjective, (vi) Distributive Adjective, (vii) Interrogative Adjective, (viii) Possessive Adjective.

(a) Attributive Adjective : 

When an adjective is used before a noun and expresses its faults and qualities, then it is called attributive adjective. Such as "The intelligent girl stood first in the examination". Here "Girl" is a noun and we've used "Intelligent (adjective)" to describe its quality and It has been used before the noun. 

(b) Predicative Adjective : 

When an adjective is used as a predicate after a verb and qualifies a noun or pronoun, then it is called predicate adjective. For an example, "The girl is very intelligent". Here the verb is "Is" and we've used "very (adjective)" after the verb and it qualifies the noun "Girl"

(i) Proper Adjective :

 Proper noun refers proper adjective. Examples, Asian, Indian, English, African, etc. "Indian products is better than Chinese products".

(ii) Adjective of Quality : 

It refers to the defect, quality or condition of a noun or pronoun. For examples, Good, Bad, Rich, Poor, Honest etc. "Ramu is an honest man".

(iii) Adjective of Quantity : 

It refers to the quantity of a noun or pronoun such as Much, Huge, Some, Half, etc. "She wants some salt". 

(iv) Numeral Adjective : 

When an adjective refers to the number of a noun or pronoun, then it is called numeral adjective. Examples One, Two, Three, Four, Several, Few, etc. "Some girls are clever".

(v) Demonstrative adjective : 

It refers specifically to an object or a person such as This, That, Those, Such, etc. "These litchis are sweet".

(vi) Distributive Adjective : 

It refers to each of the person or more than one person or object individually. For example Each, Either, Every, etc. "Each student will get a chocolate"

(vii) Interrogative Adjective : 

It refers to the questionable word and is used as an adjective before the noun. Example Which, What, Whose, etc. "Whose book is this".  

(viii) Possessive Adjective : 

This adjective is used as a right or relative of a person or more than one person such as My, Our, Your, Their, etc. " This is my pen"

Verb Definition and Examples and Types

Verb Definition : 

A verb is a word that denotes ‘being’, ‘having’, or ‘doing’. For an example, "The boy ran into the room". Here "The Boy" is a noun and "Ran" is a verb and it refers that the boy did something and that is he ran into the room. So, it denotes "Doing"

Examples of Verb :

  • The children are playing in the park (Doing)
  • The man is honest (being) 
  • They have a smart TV (having) 

All Types of Verb 

The verb also has many types but we'll only talk about important types of verb such as Auxiliary and Main verbs. 

Auxiliary verb or Helping verb:

 Auxiliary verb is a verb which helps the principal verb or main verb to express the tense or mood or voice of the verb. For an example, "He is reading a book". Here "Reading" is a main or principal verb and "Is" is a auxiliary or helping verb. And here auxiliary verb is helping to express the tense or mood or voice of the verb. There are two types of auxiliary verbs, Primary and Modal. 

Primary Verb : 

There are three types of primary verb such as (i) Be verb - Am, Is,, Are, Was, Were. (ii) Have verb - Have, Has, Had. (iii) Do verb - Do, Does, Did. 

Modal Verb : 

Can - Could, Shall - Should, May - Might, Will - Would, etc. 

Main Verb or Principal Verb : 

Verbs that are used independently without the help of any other verb are called main verb or principal verb. For an example, "She is a teacher". Here verb "Is" is used as in independently without the help of any other verb. There are two types of main verb, Transitive and Intransitive.

Transitive verb : 

This verb requires an object such as "He cut the cake". Here "The cake" is an object and the verb is "Cut". 

Intransitive verb : 

This verb does not require an object such as "She smiles". There is no object here. There is only verb here and that is "Smiles". 

Adverb Definition and Examples and Types

Adverb Definition :  

An Adverb adds information to a verb, adjective or another adverb or it modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb. An example, "Riya goes slowly". Here "Slow" is a verb but adverb modifies it as "Slowly"

Adverb Examples : 

  • He goes slowly (Adverb modifies a verb) 
  • They came too early (Adverb modifies another adverb) 
  • She a is very beautiful girl (Adverb modifies an adjective)

Types of Adverb 

Adverbs are divided into three main categories : (a) Simple Adverb, (b) Relative or Conjunctive Adverb and (c) Interrogative Adverb. Simple Adverb are of eight types : (i) Adverbs of time, (ii) Adverbs of manner, (iii) Adverbs of place, (iv) Adverbs of quantity, (v) Adverbs of order, (vi) Adverbs of cause, (vii) Adverbs of negation and affirmation. (viii) Adverbs of intensifier. 

(a) Types of Simple Adverb : 

(i) Adverbs of time : It is used to indicate when, how long or how many times a task is completed. Example "The train arrived late. He came yesterday. She reaches here now".

(ii) Adverbs of manner : This adverb is used to describe how a task is accomplished. Example "He reads clearly. She works slowly". 

(iii) Adverbs of place : It is used to indicate where the work is being done or where it is coming from. Example "The horse galloped away. I saw him somewhere". 

(iv) Adverbs of quantity : This adverb is used to indicate how much or how much work is done. Example "She is fully prepared for exam. He is rather busy".

(v) Adverbs of order : This adverb is used to indicate that the action in done. For example "She did it first. He was second in the exam". 

(vi) Adverbs of cause : It is used to denote the cause or purpose of an action. Example "She therefore left the college. She is hence absent".

(vii) Adverbs of negation and affirmation : This refers to a affirmative or negative adverb such as "Yes, he is right. I have never heard it".

(viii) Adverbs of intensifier : The adverbs that emphasize the function of the verb are called intensifier adverb. Example "She really don't know. Surely it is a bucket." 

(b) Relative or Conjunctive Adverb : 

It combines two sentences and explains its relation to the previous sentence such as "Show me the place where he was lost".

(c) Interrogative Adverb : 

When adverbs are used to ask questions, then it is called interrogative verb. Example "Where is he?. When did he come?"

Preposition Definition and Examples and Types

Preposition Definition : 

A preposition is a word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the relation of that noun or pronoun with any other word of the sentence. Example "The book is on the table". Here preposition is "On" and it is placed placed before a noun, "Table or the Table"

Examples of Preposition : 

  • We sleep at night
  • The dog is behind you
  • Is she in her house?

Types of Preposition 

Again there are several types of preposition but we'll only discuss about three important types of preposition such as (i) Simple Preposition, (ii) Double Preposition and (iii) Compound Prepositions. 

(i) Simple Preposition : 

Simple preposition is also called one word preposition such as "at, by, on, over, under, to, up, from, with, etc".

(ii) Double Preposition : 

when two prepositions are used by side by side, then it is called double preposition. Example "in-to (into), with-in (within), with-out (without), from under, towards, on-to (onto), from within, etc". 

(iii) Compound Prepositions : 

It is formed by prefixing a preposition to an adjective, a noun or an adverb such as "behind (by + hind), beside (by + side), along (on + long), etc".

Conjunction Definition and Examples and Types

Conjunction Definition :

 A Conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences. for an example "John and Ram are two friends". Here "and" is a conjunction and it joins two words, "John and Ram".

Examples of Conjunction :

  • He worked hard but he failed 
  • He says that this book is him 
  • She closed the door after her friend had gone

Types of Conjunction 

There are usually two types of conjunctions but there are more types and we will discuss the main two types of conjunctions today and those two are (i) Coordinating Conjunction and (ii) Subordinating Conjunction.   

(i) Coordinating Conjunction : 

It joins words, phrases, clauses like verb with verb, noun with noun, adverb with adverb, etc. Example "They worked and played together". 

(ii) Subordinating Conjunction : 

It joins sub-clauses with the main clauses and it denotes place, effect, time, cause, condition, purpose, etc. Example "She said that she would go". 

Interjection Definition and Examples and Types

Interjection Definition : 

An Interjection expresses emotion. It throws some sudden feeling such as "Oh, what a lovely present!". Here "Oh" is an interjection and it expresses emotion.

Interjection Examples :

  • Hallo, Rahul! How are you?
  • Hurrah! Today is a holiday
  • Ugh, what a dirty table!


We hope this article'll help you to understand parts of speech. If you have any doubt and questions about it, then you can comment down below. Please share this article with your friends. Thank you. 

Admin

Hello everyone, I’m Mritunjoy Biswas and I did masters degree in English literature. Now I’m a private tutor and I have been teaching for last 5 years.

Post a Comment (0)
Previous Post Next Post